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Next Stop History is a historical website, which focuses on presenting materials regarding the history of the 20th century Poland. The English content section provides translations of selected articles and multimedia materials, that can be found in the Polish version. Our English content is directed towards foreign readers interested in Polish, contemporary history. Eventually, we plan to deliver a separate English website, which we are already working on. Until then, we encourage you to read the materials presented in this section.

Artykuł

In the spring of 1940, the Germans began to organize a camp for political prisoners in Auschwitz (Oświęcim, before the war), which was then within the territories incorporated into the German Third Reich. On June 14, 1940, a transport arrived from Tarnów with the first Polish political prisoners.

Artykuł

In December 1939, the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in a special resolution announced the use of retaliation for innocent Polish victims against the Germans, and especially towards managerial spheres.

Wywiad

Rafał Leśkiewicz, PhD, editor-in-chief of the portal Przystanekhistoria.pl, talks about the investigation in the Auschwitz-Birkenau case to Łukasz Gramza, prosecutor of the Branch Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Nation of Poland of the Institute of National Remembrance in Krakow.

Artykuł

The article below is an introduction to the functioning of German camps between 1939-1945 at the Polish territories in their current borders.

Wywiad

No less than 467 people were killed for aiding Jews – point out Aleksandra Namysło and Martyna Grądzka-Rejak, the author of the book “Repressions for helping Jews in the occupied Polish lands during the Second World War”.

Publikacje

World War II changed the course of history. Started by the Germans with the complicity of the Soviet Union, it led to unimaginable destruction and millions of deaths. Later, it brought many nations under Soviet domination for almost fifty years and left the world divided in the Cold War.

Artykuł

We had already been building our statehood during the Great War, since at least the summer of 1915. In the last years of the First World War, the educational and judicial systems had finally become Polish as well. Officials had been trained for all departments of administration. Thanks to that, in November 1918, we were ready.

Biogram / Biografia

Ignacy Jan Paderewski was an extraordinary pianist and composer, a devoted patriot and a man of the state, a philanthropist and a social activist. His engagement in the Polish cause was absolutely selfless. He will forever have a place among the great figures who helped Poland in regaining its independence.

Źródło historyczne

Hans Frank was one of the main authors and executors of the German extermination policies. He was responsible for mass crimes, economic exploitation and theft and destruction of countless pieces of art in the Polish lands not joined with the Third Reich. Thanks to his vanity, a unique historical source was created – an official journal of the Governor-General.

Artykuł

On April 11th 1943 the Germans began the propaganda campaign regarding the discovery of mass graves of the Polish officers in Katyń, murdered by the NKVD in 1940. Street megaphones in the General Government for occupied Poland and propaganda press were announcing the victims’ names and information of the documents and personal items found on them.

Artykuł

In the propaganda of the Polish People’s Republic, there was a prevalent concept, that the Soviets wanted to aid Warsaw during the Uprising of the capital in 1944, but didn’t manage to do so due to objective reasons. The quick taking of Cracow in January of 1945, on the other side, was to be the proof of the Soviet sacrifice, motivated by love for our culture and monuments.

Artykuł

Demonstrations, occupation of schools, thousands of protesting letters – it’s the little known picture of the Catholics’ fight against the secularisation of education in the „people’s” Republic of Poland.

Artykuł

On the calm, Monday afternoon of October 21st 1963, the farmers from the Majdan Kozic Górskich village were working in the fields as usual. In the air was the smell of burned potato roots. Suddenly, the silence was ruptured by machine gun fire: the final stand of Józef Franczak codename “Laluś” begun.

Artykuł

One of the key elements that make up a totalitarian state is indoctrination of an entire society. In the Third Reich, Joseph Goebbels created an elaborate propaganda system, which allowed him to control all media (the press, radio and cinema) and both literature and art. That way, he could alter the Germans’ thoughts and views.

Artykuł

Witkacy or Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, a writer, painter and philosopher, who took part in the First World War, witnessed the Communist revolution and influenced by what he saw, quickly returned to Poland.

Artykuł

Col. William Quinn from the 7th US Army after partaking in the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp in May of 1945, wrote this in his report: „There, our troops found sights, sounds and stenches beyond belief, cruelties so enormous as to be incomprehensible to the normal mind. Dachau and death were synonymous.”

Artykuł

In January, 1969 the whole world was shocked with the news of Jan Palach’s death, who called himself the “living torch no. 1”. At that time, not many people knew, that the first person to set itself on fire in the Eastern bloc was Ryszard Siwiec.

Artykuł

Twice the death penalty, 15 years of imprisonment, loss of public rights and honorary citizen rights forever and the forfeiture of wealth by the State Treasury – that was the sentence given by the Communist Regional Military Court in Gdańsk for not even 18 years old Danuta Siedzikówna codename “Inka”, a nurse of the Polish Home Army.

Artykuł

On March 13th, 1968 Manchester United faced Górnik Zabrze in the second-leg quarter final of the European Champion Clubs’ Cup. However; at the same time, in a nearby city of Gliwice crowds of young people gathered for the so-called “March protests”. Western journalists not only had to struggle to get into Poland, but were also under constant observation of the Communist secret services, which tried to stop them from reporting on the manifestation.

Artykuł

During the counting assembly on July 29th 1941, the deputy commandant Karl Fritzsch pointed to ten prisoners, who were to die of starvation. It was a punishment – as well as warning to others – for the escape attempt of one of the prisoners of the KL Auschwitz concentration camp. Among those, who were to die of hunger was one volunteer.

Artykuł

The account of Bogusław Kamola codename “Hipek” – a 14 years old Home Army soldier fighting in the 227th scout platoon (Sewer Rats) during the Warsaw Uprising – is a source of knowledge concerning the insurgent sewer communications and at the same time indirectly exposes the Communist disinformation conveyed in the film “Sewer”.

Artykuł

In the autumn of 1980, in the common-room of the Locomotive depot in the city of Wrocław, 34 railroad workers from the “Solidarity” movement begun a hunger strike against the violent policies of the Communist officials. It was an important event not only for the employees of the Polish railroads, or PKP, but also for all members of “Solidarity” across the country.

Artykuł

Florian Czarnyszewicz was a thorn in the Communists’ side for several reasons. First and foremost, he dared to put on paper the memory of the tragic fate of Poles from near Berezina river, who fought between 1911-1920 for the return of their lands to the independent Republic of Poland.

Artykuł

On October 19th 1984 priest Popiełuszko, the pastor of the working class, organiser of Masses for the motherland, one of the chaplains of “Solidarity” was arrested. For the last two years of his work at the Stanisław Kostka church at Warsaw’s Żoliborz district, he had to face the Communist Security Service hemming in.

Artykuł

It wasn’t an “ordinary” attack, because even assuming that every aggression is unique on its own, it’s hard not to notice some unprecedented aspects of the soviet invasion of Poland on September 17th, 1939. For the first time ever, one country invaded another claiming that the invaded one… didn’t exist.

Artykuł

Sometimes to save only one person, trust, cooperation and eagerness of dozens of people were needed. The story of hiding of Sabina Honigwachs, a resident of the Gorlicki county in Poland, shows how difficult it was to save merely a single human life.

Artykuł

The German invasion of Poland was an extremely brutal campaign with war crimes being committed on a daily basis. Wehrmacht – the armed forces of Nazi Germany – on countless occasions violated international conventions and showed total contempt for its foe.

Artykuł

It’s May 5th 1945. Soldiers of the Świętokrzyska Brigade, the only formation of the Polish underground which broke through the German-Soviet frontline, are lying at the edge of a forest in western Czechoslovakia, at the lands occupied by the Third Reich, awaiting orders to attack the German concentration camp Holiszów.

Artykuł

The partition of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union in September 1939 did not force Poles to capitulate. The interned president of Poland in Romania, Ignacy Mościcki appointed his successor on the basis of the constitution – Władysław Raczkiewicz, who in turn appointed the government with gen. Władysław Sikorski as its leader. Despite the occupation of the Polish land by Germany and the USSR, the continuity of the Polish state was preserved. Its officials, recognised by the free societies of the world, led the fight for independence abroad throughout the entire war, first in France, then after its fall, in Great Britain. Last shots of the soldiers of the Polish Army hadn’t gone silent yet in their unfair struggle against two aggressors, when the underground resistance began forming. The commitment full of patriotism and sacrifice and the organisational abilities of tens of thousands of Poles, from all walks of life, led to the creation of the Polish Underground State.

Audio/Video

„Market Garden” the 6th part of „The Antek Srebrny War Odyssey” comic series

Audio/Video

Between the Walls. Poland under totalitarian regimes 1939

Audio/Video

IPNtv: Unconquered: Trying Times

Audio/Video

IPNtv: The Unconquered

Audio/Video

The trail of an application in the IPN Archive

Audio/Video

Communist parties on the road to full power (after World War II) - panel I

Audio/Video

IPNtv - Game for Independence. Poland.

Publikacje

40 years have passed since 16 October 1978, when the son of our land, today Saint John Paul II, took his post at the Vatican. His pontificate, begun with the words ‘Do not be afraid ...’, brought hope to millions and contributed to the emergence of „Solidarity’ as well as the fall of communism and the Soviet Union.

Audio/Video

IPNtv: POGROM or SLAUGHTER (documentary with ENG subtitles - 2008)

Audio/Video

IPNtv − 24 March National Day of Remembrance of Poles who saved Jews

Publikacje

“Today, September 6th, Rumkowski came from Łódź [...]. He said all kinds of outlandish things about the ghetto. Apparently, there is a Jewish state there [...],” Emanuel Ringelblum wrote ironically after the visit of the Eldest of the Łódź Jews, Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski, to the Warsaw ghetto.

Audio/Video

IPN TV - When they come (Kiedy przyjdą podpalić dom)

Audio/Video

IPN TV - Interview with former CIA officers David Forden and Aris Pappas regarding Col. Ryszard Kukliński codename “Jack Strong” (Rozmowa z byłymi oficerami CIA)

Publikacje

In July 2012 dozens of families of Polish heroes of World War II and the period immediately after the war saw a glimmer of new hope for finding the graves of their fathers, uncles, and grandfathers. For it was the beginning of the exhumations in the Ł section of the Powązki cemetery in Warsaw the purpose of which was to find and identify the victims of the communist court murders committed during 1948–1956 in the prison in the Mokotów quarter of Warsaw. Several months later three families became certain that their loved ones had been buried in the ‘soldiers’ field’. With time that number began to grow.

Audio/Video

IPNtv - Konferencja: Wina i kara. Społeczeństwa wobec rozliczeń zbrodni popełnionych przez reżimy totalitarne w latach 1939-1956. Rozliczenia z niemieckim nazizmem. Kontekst niemiecki, część I

Audio/Video

IPNtv - Conference: From Free Europe to Free Poland - Stephen Mull (ENG)

Katalogi wystaw

The exhibition “Destruction of the Polish Elite. Operation AB – Katyn”, in addition to presenting horrifying crimes perpetrated by the two biggest 20th-century totalitarian regimes on the Polish society, poses questions about the scope of mutual cooperation of German Nazis and Soviet Communists.

Artykuł

In the spring of 1940, the Germans began to organize a camp for political prisoners in Auschwitz (Oświęcim, before the war), which was then within the territories incorporated into the German Third Reich. On June 14, 1940, a transport arrived from Tarnów with the first Polish political prisoners.

Artykuł

In December 1939, the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in a special resolution announced the use of retaliation for innocent Polish victims against the Germans, and especially towards managerial spheres.

Wywiad

Rafał Leśkiewicz, PhD, editor-in-chief of the portal Przystanekhistoria.pl, talks about the investigation in the Auschwitz-Birkenau case to Łukasz Gramza, prosecutor of the Branch Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Nation of Poland of the Institute of National Remembrance in Krakow.

Artykuł

The article below is an introduction to the functioning of German camps between 1939-1945 at the Polish territories in their current borders.

Wywiad

No less than 467 people were killed for aiding Jews – point out Aleksandra Namysło and Martyna Grądzka-Rejak, the author of the book “Repressions for helping Jews in the occupied Polish lands during the Second World War”.

Publikacje

World War II changed the course of history. Started by the Germans with the complicity of the Soviet Union, it led to unimaginable destruction and millions of deaths. Later, it brought many nations under Soviet domination for almost fifty years and left the world divided in the Cold War.

Artykuł

We had already been building our statehood during the Great War, since at least the summer of 1915. In the last years of the First World War, the educational and judicial systems had finally become Polish as well. Officials had been trained for all departments of administration. Thanks to that, in November 1918, we were ready.

Biogram / Biografia

Ignacy Jan Paderewski was an extraordinary pianist and composer, a devoted patriot and a man of the state, a philanthropist and a social activist. His engagement in the Polish cause was absolutely selfless. He will forever have a place among the great figures who helped Poland in regaining its independence.

Źródło historyczne

Hans Frank was one of the main authors and executors of the German extermination policies. He was responsible for mass crimes, economic exploitation and theft and destruction of countless pieces of art in the Polish lands not joined with the Third Reich. Thanks to his vanity, a unique historical source was created – an official journal of the Governor-General.

Artykuł

On April 11th 1943 the Germans began the propaganda campaign regarding the discovery of mass graves of the Polish officers in Katyń, murdered by the NKVD in 1940. Street megaphones in the General Government for occupied Poland and propaganda press were announcing the victims’ names and information of the documents and personal items found on them.

Artykuł

In the propaganda of the Polish People’s Republic, there was a prevalent concept, that the Soviets wanted to aid Warsaw during the Uprising of the capital in 1944, but didn’t manage to do so due to objective reasons. The quick taking of Cracow in January of 1945, on the other side, was to be the proof of the Soviet sacrifice, motivated by love for our culture and monuments.

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